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The term "permafrost" refers to permanently frozen ground. If it thaws, there is a risk of natural hazards like rockfalls or debris flows. Our research in permafrost regions supplies us with vital information about the state of the permafrost. Our aim is to gain a better understanding of the processes affecting it and to detect risks at an early stage.


The term "permafrost" describes ground – such as rock, debris or moraine – that is permanently below a temperature of 0°C. But in summer, the topmost layer of the ground above the permafrost also warms up to above 0°C. This is known as the active layer. Permafrost covers some five percent of Switzerland’s territory and is mainly found in scree slopes and rock walls in cold locations at elevations above 2,500 metres. It is not so much the air temperature as the ground surface temperature that determines whether permafrost is present. Solar radiation and the depth and duration of snow cover all have a substantial impact on the ground surface temperature. Although permafrost is not immediately visible, there are some landforms that can indicate its presence, such as rock glaciers. 

Data from boreholes

Since 1996, we have drilled boreholes at thirty permafrost sites in the Swiss Alps. We have fitted these boreholes with thermometers and are investigating the snow cover. The permafrost measurement network run by the WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF provides essential information about the state of the permafrost and helps to understand the complex interactions between the ground surface and the underlying substrate. Nine of SLF’s boreholes are part of the Swiss Permafrost Monitoring Network, PERMOS, which is responsible for monitoring permafrost throughout Switzerland. We also use various measuring devices to collect information about the dynamics of rock walls and rock glaciers.

Thawing permafrost

Permafrost is not a natural hazard. However, if the ice in permafrost melts, the ground may become less stable, which can result in subsidence, landslides, scree or soil creep, debris flows or rockslides.


Focus Areas

Auf einem schneebedeckten Hang am Matterhorn sind zwei Betonrohre senkrecht in den Schnee und den darunterliegenden Permafrost gegraben. Ihre Metalldeckel sind mit grossen Steinen beschwert, die beiden Rohre sind mit einer losen Leine verbunden. Im Hintergrund der Bohrlöcher erstreckt sich ein Gletscherabbruch und dahinter eine schroffe Felswand.


Permafrost measurements have confirmed that the permafrost is getting warmer, which could lead to severe ice loss and slope movements.

Das Bild zeigt den untersten Abschnitt zweier Liftmasten, die mit aufwendigen Betonfüssen im Permafrostboden verankert sind.

Building on permafrost

We test new building methods on mountain permafrost and draw up practice-oriented recommendations.

In einer Felswand am Piz Kesch ist ein Felssturz losgebrochen. Das Material bedeckt auch Teile des darunterliegenden Porchabella Gletschers.

Permafrost and natural hazards

If climate change causes glaciers to melt and permafrost to thaw, there may be an increase in natural hazards.


The WSL research program CCAMM researches mass movements and the impact of climate change in mountain areas.



The Swiss Permafrost Monitoring Network PERMOS systematically documents the state of and changes in mountain permafrost in the Swiss Alps.


The research centre for climate change, extremes and natural hazards in alpine regions.




The SLF Permafrost research group is exploring new ways to measure the increasing water content in permafrost triggered by climate change.

The year was marked by the arrival of the new director and the launch of strategic programmes and a research centre in Davos.

An international team of researchers has now been able to measure and simulate the resonant swaying of the Matterhorn.

Peter Bebi is the head of the CERC, the new SLF research centre combining expertise on climate change, extreme events and natural hazards.




The presented methodologies pave the way to a comprehensive understanding of rock-ground and rock-net interaction, a key requirement to improve the design of flexible barriers that account for the role of rock shape, spin and eccentric impacts in rockfall protection.

WSL Berichte 97